domingo, 4 de diciembre de 2011

Tourism in Venezuela

Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country located in the northern part of South America, consisting of a mainland and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The mainland bordering the sea on the north and bordered by Colombia to the west, with Brazil to the south and Guyana to the east. With the latter, the Venezuelan government maintains a dispute over the Essequibo territory. Due to its island territories, exercising sovereignty over nearly 860,000 km ² of the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone. This marine area bounded by the thirteen states

Its territory was home to important Amerindian tribal groups, as the Caribs. It was first sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1498. Soon after began the process of colonization and cultural miscegenation. Venezuela was the first country in Latin America to declare its independence from the Spanish Crown, a process which was consolidated with the Battle of Carabobo and the subsequent naval Battle of Lake Maracaibo in 1823 with the final expulsion of the Spanish troops. After a long chapter of civil conflict, the Republic found its way to the modernization of the notoriously authoritarian governments hand. In the mid-twentieth century began the struggle for a democratic system, which took root after the overthrow of Gen. Marcos Perez Jimenez in 1958. Due to the oil boom, Venezuela experienced a period of high economic growth, which was interrupted by the energy crisis of the 1980s, leading to a stage of political and social instability, alternating with financial ups and downs.
Venezuela is now considered an emerging country with an economy based primarily on the extraction and refining of oil and other minerals, and agricultural and industrial activities. He also recognized as one of the 17 mega-diverse countries, with an irregular geography that combines arid regions, jungle, vast savannas of the Llanos and Andean environments. It has all the most extensive protected areas in Latin America, known as Areas Under Special Management Regime, which cover about 63% of the country. Its population of around 29 million people, is largely mestizo, integrating indigenous races, European, African and Asian lesser extent, a situation that influences its culture and artistic expression.
Politically, it is constituted as a democratic federal state, social, law and justice, independent and sovereign state, whose sovereignty is enshrined in the Declaration of Independence signed in 1811. His federal capital and seat of the powers of the nation Santiago de Leon de Caracas.The Venezuelan territory is subdivided into 23 federal states, a Capital District, which includes the city of Caracas, and Federal Agencies, comprised of more than 311 islands, islets and cays.

Venezuela's culture is a melting pot that mainly integrates three distinct families: the indigenous, African and Spanish. The first two cultures were in turn differentiated according to the tribes.Acculturation and assimilation, typical of a cultural syncretism, conditioned to reach the current Venezuelan culture, similar in many respects to the rest of Latin America, although the natural environment means that there are important differences. The indigenous influence is limited to a few words from the lexicon and gastronomy. The African influence in the same way, as well as musical instruments like the drum. The Spanish influence was more important and in particular came from the regions of Andalusia and Extremadura, places of origin most settlers in the Caribbean during the colonial era. As an example we can mention the buildings, some of the music, the Catholic religion and language. An obvious influence is Spanish bullfights and certain features of gastronomy. Venezuela also enriched by other currents of European and Indian origin in the nineteenth century, especially from France. In the latest stage in the major cities and broke the oil regions of U.S. origin and manifestations of the new immigration of Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, increasing the already complex cultural mosaic. For example the United States comes the influence of the taste for baseball and current architectural constructions.


Venezuelan literature began to develop from the colonial era, with addresses to the new land and its native peoples. Chronicles and various styles of poetry were the major literary events during the eighteenth century. In this first period the figure of Andres Bello, poet, philologist, grammarian and educator of world renown. Bello plays comoAlocución developed to Poetry (1823) and Silva to Agriculture of the Torrid Zone (1826), which were forerunners of the subject Americans to develop later in other parts of the continent. Simon Rodriguez represents another example of renowned throughout the continent, with films such as American Societies (1828), Defense of Bolívar (1830), Field observations of Vincocaya (1830), and Lights and social virtues (1834).
The entrance to the nineteenth century and the Independence saw the birth of a sophisticated political literature, including the autobiography of Francisco de Miranda and Bolivar's letters and a speech of great beauty and stylistic rhetoric permearía the writings of diverse heroes ofemancipation process. After independence, Venezuelan literature began to diversify, but only began to evolve rapidly at the time of Guzman Blanco. Stresses at this time the poet Rafael Maria Baralt, first Latin American to hold a chair at the Royal Academy of Spanish Language.
Romanticism, the first important genre in Venezuela, was developed in the middle of the period included within this movement figures such as Juan Antonio Pérez and Eduardo Blanco Bonalde. In the late nineteenth century took place delXX modernism and early onset of modernism occurred. The customs, romanticists roots, deeply rooted in Venezuela through authors such as Nicanor Bolet Peraza, Daniel Mendoza and Fermín Toro.
In 1880 Venezuela begins to take shape in a movement and broader literary tradition of ambition. Cecilio Acosta and Aristides Rojas, among others, said the transition to new intellectual and creative positions. In the field of modernism is highlighted and Luis Manuel Díaz Rodríguez Urbaneja Achelpohl, among others.
The year 1910 is usually taken as a starting point for new aesthetic experiences that react against modernism and try to write about ordinary life, so that is shaping a new literary expression of a realistic, which reappear old essences of manners . At this point in the course of the novel are relevant Venezuelan José Rafael Pocaterra names (Memoirs of a Venezuelan of decay), Teresa de la Parra (Iphigenia) and the great figure of Romulo Gallegos, who founded the school of magical realism Latin America, with works such as Doña Bárbara (1929), Cantaclaro (1934), and Canaima (1935). Others recognized Venezuelan sonAndrés Eloy Blanco, Arturo Uslar Pietri, Miguel Otero Silva, Mariano Picon Salas, Guillermo Meneses, Adriano Gonzalez Leon, Antonia Palacios, José Antonio Ramos Sucre, Salvador Garmendia, Francisco Lazo Marti, Rafael Cadenas, José Ignacio Cabrujas, and Victor Bravo, among others.
As part of literary, Venezuela is organized twice a year, Romulo Gallegos Prize for outstanding book of Spanish-speaking world, an award considered by many as the most important literary prize in Latin America
Venezuelan music is characterized by mixed Spanish and African elements, typical of a people being from predominantly mestizo. The representative of the country genre is llanera music, using instruments such as elcuatro, harp, maracas, mandolin and mats. This rate has come to be consecrated as the music of national identity, to the extent that the name given abroad to the Venezuelans as rangers. This genre had its origin in the region now included in the states of Apure, Barinas, Guarico, Cojedes and Portuguesa, where it is grown with asinuidad.175
Another kind of great cultural significance is the bagpipes, originally from Zulia, but has variations in the eastern region. Today it is a genre that is associated with Christmas in Venezuela. Among the exponents of Zulia highlights bagpipe awe Ricardo Aguirre, who wrote what is considered the anthem of the genre, The Grey Zulia.

The Venezuelan waltz also enjoys recognition, and was developed mainly by the great masters of the guitar as Antonio Lauro and Alirio Diaz. Although it is a derivative of European waltz, is nourished by the musical characteristics typical of the country, being executed with traditional instruments llanera music, including guitar, soprano, piano and clarinet. It has its roots in the west central region of the country and in the Andean region, where they use the violin and mandolin.
The Venezuelan musical taste is very different from South American countries, only Colombia have some tastes in common on the coast and elvallenato llanera music, being border. The same is distinctly Caribbean, salsa and merengue music is to listen and not just to dance, and abroad. Also reggaeton and heavy metal genres are enjoying great popularity among the youth.
The dance most representative of the Venezuelan nation is the joropo. It has a fast moving beat rhythm, which includes a flashy footwork and a slight reference to the European waltz, so it represents the truest form of expression among the manifestations of the influence colonial.Dada music and closeness of Anglo-American countries also produces hip hop, reggae and ska, and various genres of rock and pop, which can be heard especially among youth communities in big cities. Likewise, electronic music made in Venezuela has enjoyed greater international recognition. Clusters of modern music's most renowned have been shoe 3, Feeling Dead, Los Amigos Invisibles and public disorder, the latter, a pioneer of the genre Ska worldwide with numerous compilations published in several countries, including otros.Venezuela is the birthplace of famous musicians and singers, among which stand out especially Ricardo Montaner, Ilan Chester, Maria Conchita Alonso, Italo Pizzolante, Franco de Vita, Alfredo Sadel, José Luis Rodríguez "El Puma", Oscar D'Leon, Felipe Pirela, Kiara, Karina, Rudy's Scala, Yordano, Melissa, Paul Gillman, and music artists llanera comoReynaldo Armas, Luis Silva and Rummy Olivo, among many others. But of all the exponents of Venezuelan music, the most celebrated is Simon Diaz, whose worship and interpretation of music llanera, coupled with his personality, has earned him be considered as the most important Venezuelan folk of all time. His song Caballo Viejo has been versioned and translated into several languages ​​around the mundo.178 In 2008, Diaz received a Grammy Award Honorary Board of the hands of the Latin Recording Academy.
Other musicians are renowned Antonio Lauro, Alirio Diaz and Rodrigo Riera, who stood out as guitarists and composers such as José Ángel Lamas, Reynaldo Hahn yAldemaro Romero in classical music. Venezuela in this field has been highlighted in recent years by making presentations at European venues extraordinary by Simon Bolivar Symphony Orchestra, being acclaimed by discerning audiences in Europe and has gained some international fame and hassworn in as one of the best orchestras in the world with its director Gustavo Dudamel who is currently also leads the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra.

The Venezuelan painting and sculpture have been traditionally influenced by the historical issueand the political process experienced by the country its independence. Many nineteenth-centurypaintings and sculptures are often presented as representations of key moments in history,heroic acts, and allegories of the nation. Those highlighted in this phase were Juan Lovera, Arturo Michelena, Martín Tovar y Tovar, Tito Salas, among others. However, romantic paintinghad its greatest exponent in Cristobal Rojas, who turned away from these issues largelywidespread.
Among those who have contributed greatly to kinetic art have been Carlos Cruz-Diez, JesusSoto and Juvenal Ravelo. This trend in particular has become very popular in the country, and there are works of this kind in several cultural institutions, and even on highways, in the Metro and in airports such as Maiquetía. The abstraction and symbolism had one of the largest developers ENARM Reveron, whose work is beginning to be rediscovered and recognized internationally. In the kinetic abstraction and Alejandro Otero also highlighted, while socialrealism was linked to the work of César Rengifo. Great landscapers have sidoManuel Cabré, Luis Alvarez de Lugo, among others, standing in the paint of Cerro El Avila. Another name isPedro Leon Zapata, recognized as a famous cartoonist.
In the sculpture stand Francisco Narváez, Alejandro Colina, Gertrud Goldschmidt, Lia Bermudez, among others. The country also have special room for the activities and products in the field of graphic design.


The history of crafts and artisans can not shake a history dating back over 14,000 years, when the first settlers Amerindians inhabited the present territory of Venezuela. They developedtechniques of hunter-gatherer societies for carving stone and wood to create objects that would favor their interaction with the environment and use their resources. Later when he acquired the knowledge that allowed them to treat other natural resources such as clay, manage translating some of their world and cosmogony on the patterned ground and kitchen. The first traces come delOrinoco ceramic medium, known as the cultural traditions and Barrancoid Saladoid. The textiles and basketry were used in a utilitarian and sacred festivals. In the Indian burial remains have been found Quíbor of entire support frames served the corpses.These baskets were used as ballot boxes placed where it is dry parts of the skeleton to bedeposited in other areas as secondary burials. Some fragments of pottery show archaeologicalbasketry impressions suggest that certain sections functioned as a support for large pots and dishes, while the pieces were decorated or finished before being burned. Many of thetechniques practiced in today's craft had its birth in this historical period.


The architectural work in the country can be traced to the year 1000 BC C., when the first settlersmade ​​earthworks for the development of agriculture, also dominate the management of stone for buildings used for storage. The following indigenous architecture was developed in aquatic andwild spaces, having its most representative examples lospalafitos, the shabonos and churuatas(huts) of collective interest, characterized by a conical tip and ring structure. The latter are, to this day, the highest growth in the country, have a specificity according to each indigenous group and have become an icon of the Venezuelan culture.

With the establishment of the colonial architecture is achieved mostly characterized by the sobriety and simplicity. Given the limited perception of geology económicaque was given initiallyto the then province opted for the savings in resources for the construction, which markedmodesty found in buildings of this phase. The mud and adobe houses, with large windows, andset around lush courtyards and hallways, proliferated to become the most common for the era.The affordable housing is noted without much ostentation, and religious architecture also remained attached to that spirit, which continued throughout the nineteenth century. However, the picturesque and vivid colors which adorn the exterior walls of the houses are characteristic ofcolonial architecture in the country, particularly in warmer cities like Coro and Maracaibo

Flor de Venezuela, Barquisimeto.
The twentieth century was marked more by its urban development aimed at modernization.The neo-baroque and Moorish influences were evident in the building of the National Theatre and the New Circus, with the help of notable architects such as Alejandro Chataing.Buildings such as the Teatro Teresa Carreño and Torres del Centro Simon Bolivar and the Redevelopment Silence and Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas (by Carlos Raúl Villanueva) show the momentum that gave modernist architecture in the country, mid-century.
They also highlight the imposing skyscrapers in the capital built during the oil boom, excelling Central Park Towers, the tallest in Sudamérica.186
See also: Category: Architects of Venezuela, Category: Monuments of Venezuela and Annex: Skyscrapers in Venezuela
Main article: Cuisine of Venezuela

Creole Pavilion served to the table.
As an integral part of Venezuelan culture, culinary arts of the country also are characterized by a symbiosis between indigenous and European elements. Grains mostly used among them the corn-hunted animals, marine animals, vegetables and dairy products like cheese.They are considered national dishes to hallaca-flour dough stuffed corn of various ingredients and wrapped in banana leaves to be boiled later, at Christmas-prepared, the Creole flag made up of rice, shredded beef, black beans ( beans), chopped and sometimes fried egg-and-cake circular arepa corn flour, preparing subject both to the region where the cook and the taste of consumidor.187 The arepa, which is cooked on griddles, has beenColombian cuisine assimilated to the point of believing wrongly that their place of origin.

Hallacas, one of the national dishes of Venezuela.
Although possessing these traits universally, Venezuelan cuisine is as varied and diverse as the territory itself. In the capital region is noted for being more diverse as a rallying point, as is the center of the productive areas, and where it receives most influential Spanish, Italian and other European. In the eastern region, being the Caribbean area, dominated by a cuisine based on fish, lobster and seafood with pasta or rice, revealing the influence of European sea foods. In the Llanos is well known beef consumption and hunted animals, and also its high production of cheese and dairy products. Zulia, the country's western yGuayana not alienate many of those same features, differing in the goat meat, goat and rabbit palmita cheeses like the first two, and in the presence of corn in the latter region, producing cheeses such as French Guiana, hand and others. In Losander is a European orientation, which consume more vegetables and tubers, wheat, lamb, trout lácteos.188 crops and products

Arepa stuffed with yellow cheese and ham.
Venezuelan cuisine has other well-known dishes like pancakes, the goat in coconut, LaReine Pepiada, meat on a stick, black roast, grilled Creole, tripe soup, pinch rolls Andean and nectarines among others. The type of snack tequeñosson more appreciated in the country, and is also very extensive preparation empanadas. Of foreign contribution are lafabada and pastiche. Among the most widespread beverages are the Venezuelan beer and brown sugar with lemon. Beer is the most consumed beverage alcohólicade, 189 Punch also produced Cream. Venezuelan rums are of great tradition and are among the best in the world, 190 while the domestic production of wine is ever increasing.
National Symbols
Main Category: Symbols of Venezuela
In Venezuela, as well as recognize the flag, anthem and coat, as national symbols, have named other typical elements of the national wildlife nación.191 symbols, namely:
 The orchid (Cattleya mossiae) was declared the national flower May 23, 1951.§ The species was discovered in Venezuela mossiae in the 1830's.
 The araguaney (Tabebuia chrysantha) is the national tree from the May 29, 1948.§ Its name consists of a word of Indian origin and the combination of Greek words meaning golden flower, alluding to the color yellow.
 The Oriole (Icterus icterus) is the national bird from the May 23, 1958.§ It's a bird about 24 inches wingspan, which is distinguished by its yellow-orange color in the whole body except the head and wings, which are black with white parts, and a blue patch around the eyes.
 The Alma Llanera is a joropo whose music was composed by Pedro Elías Gutiérrez based on a text by Rafael Bolivar Coronado.192 is considered as the second national anthem of Venezuela.§ It premiered at the Teatro Municipal de Caracas on September 19, 1914.

Cattleya mossiae

Tabebuia chrysantha

Icterus icterus

Alma Llanera
Film and theater
Main articles: Cinema and Theatre in Venezuela Venezuela

Baralt Theater was the first stage where a film was screened in the country, July 11, 1896.
The Venezuelan film began production in 1896, barely a year after the first production of the Lumière brothers in France. Production is characterized by low and irregular, although he lived a golden age in the 1970 and 1980 with directors such as Mauritius Walerstein, Clemente de la Cerda and Roman Chalbaud latter author of the film considered by many the best example of Venezuelan cinema: The Smoking Fish (1977). At present the most representative directors are Fina Torres, Elia Schneider, Alberto Arvelo, José Ramón Novoa and Rísquez Diego. The governing body is the National Autonomous Cinematography.
For its part, the theatrical Venezuelan are poorly documented in the pre-Columbian period, in part to the visióneurocéntrica the world and the underdevelopment of local Indian tribes, compared with the Aztecs, Mayas and Incas. However, the theater played an important role in the dissemination of the identity of the tribe, developing more in the Venezuelan Andes, where it was used for educational and religious. The professionalization of the theater would come during the colonial period to the seventeenth century. It has been said that modern Venezuelan theater has been influenced largely by Tennessee Williams pieces for his treatment of the problem of man, 194 and was amassed through the theater called Trinity Venezuela: José Ignacio Cabrujas, Isaac Chocrón and Roman Chalbaud. Its activity is profuse and rich looking with new techniques and universal works escénicas.195Existen numerous theater groups like the National Theatre Company, the Rajatabla, the Theja, the Venezuelan Chair Scene. Other renowned playwrights Venezuelans have been Levy Rossell, Ugo Ulive, Rodolfo Santana, Edilio Mariela Peña Romero.

Cole bulls in San Juan de Los Morros (Guárico).
The origins of the sport in Venezuela are tracked in the colonial era, when in the second half of the sixteenth century introduced cattle in the country. This would lead to school, an equestrian sport that is down a bull by the tail, which emerged from the farm chores llanos.196 Also include the date Boccia, game similar to bocce and pétanque. The latter method was introduced by Spanish monks in the same historical period, but its popularity would grow and in the twentieth century. Both practices are very traditional in the country.They are also a few native martial arts such as stick fighting Tocuyano and Kariv submission.

The Estadio La Ceiba, with a capacity of 30,000 spectators, the ballpark is more capacity in the country, and the second in Latin America.
Although these could be taken as a national sport, baseball is evident as the most popular.In this area, notably highlighted Venezuela, taking seven titles in the Caribbean Series, and was gold medalist of the World Baseball Cup on three occasions. The Venezuelan Professional Baseball League, founded in 1945, is the main annual competition organized in the field, with eight teams. It is also the second largest exporter of baseball, second only to the Dominican Republic. In el2008, a total of 729 Venezuelan baseball players had a contract in baseball extranjero.197 For the country is very important to follow the career of Venezuelans in Major League Baseball.
Basketball has wide hobby. Represents the Venezuelan Federation of Basketball (FVB) affiliated to FIBA. Its activities are divided into Major League and National League. The team participated in international events in the 1992 Olympic Games, with their only Olympic and World Championships 1990, 2002 and 2006. It has also classified several tournaments in the Americas (Pre-Olympic) FIBA ​​Americas Championship (Pre-World) and Pan American Games. Many Venezuelans have participated in the NBA, the most recognized Carl Herrera.The greatest feat of Venezuelan basketball until now has been the silver medal at the Tournament of the Americas in Portland 1992.

Venezuela national football team.
Football has seen increased popularity in recent years. Organized by the Venezuelan Football Federation (VFF), an affiliate of Lafif. The increase in the victories and the quality of the game of soccer team in Venezuela since 2001 has stimulated the development in this discipline as well as attracting fans. Venezuela hosted for the first time America's Cup in its 42 th edition del2007, although his best tournament participation was fourth in 2011. The greatest achievement of a national team of football was the third in the South American U-20, 1954 and the first qualification for the World Cup U-20, 2009. Venezuela LaPrimera Division consists of 18 teams and participation in continental tournaments every year. In 2008, Venezuelans knew of 163 players participating in clubs extranjeros.198
In the variation of indoor soccer, Venezuela has enjoyed an important career, graduating champion in the World Championship of Futsal AMF 1997.199
In motor sports, the most prominent Venezuelan Johnny Cecotto was. He became the youngest world champion in motorcycling history by winning the French Grand Pemi in 350cc, added 750cc World Championship to their titles. In this discipline also features Carlos Washing, two-time champion in 250cc, and Pastor Maldonado, racing driver in Formula 1. On the other hand, in the most prominent individual sports is boxing in Venezuela, with a wide fan base. The country has projected major international boxers, and is followed with interest by the Venezuelans.

Pastor Maldonado, during a race in the Grand Prix of Monaco.
Venezuela has participated in 16 Olympic Games, which has won two gold medals (Mexico 1968, Barcelona 1992), two silver (Montreal 1976, Moscow 1980) and eight bronze (Helsinki 1952, Rome 1960, Mexico 1968, Montreal 1976, Moscow 1980, Los Angeles 1984, Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008). He did his best to participate in Mexico in 1968 was ranked 29 th in the medal. Historically has emphasized in sports such as boxing, weightlifting, cycling and taekwondo.

The peloton in the final stage of laVuelta to Venezuela 2009.
In the Bolivarian Games, Venezuela's first medal in the 3263 historic medals won, having reached 1401 gold, 1055 silver and 807 bronze medals. Moreover, the Pan American Games, Venezuela is in 7th place ahead of Colombia, harvesting 73 gold medals, 156 silver and 224 bronze medals awarded to reach 453. Hosted the 1983 Pan American Games.
Rugby is also practiced since the early 1950, introduced into the country by oil workers of British origin. Today it is very popular in college.
 Venezuela at the Olympic Games§
 Venezuelan Professional Baseball League§
 Venezuela Baseball Team§
 Venezuelan Football Federation§
 Venezuela football team§
 Venezuela Primera Division§
 Professional Basketball League of Venezuela§
 Venezuela Basketball Team§
 Selection of rugby in Venezuela§
 Team Venezuela volleyball§
Venezuela is the fourth country in Latin America feriados.200 number of days listed below the national festivities, on condition of not working and working (*). There are also important festivals at the regional level for their cultural significance, such as the Divina Pastora (January 14) in Lara and the Virgin of Chiquinquirá (November 18) in Zulia, which is celebrated with the Fair La Chinita.